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The principle and performance of superconducting convection electric heater

Issuing time:2017-08-10 16:47

1. Heating element of super thermal convection heater

        As the core component of electric heating equipment, the selection of heating elements is extremely important. It is related to the heating speed, heating efficiency, safety, and service life of electric heating equipment when it is working. The heating elements currently used in the field of heating equipment are mainly divided into two categories: one is metal materials, such as nickel-chromium alloy heating wires; the other is non-metallic materials, such as carbon crystals, electric heating films, and ptc ceramic materials. Here we focus on introducing the material with excellent heating performance—ptc ceramic heating element.


ptc element

The scientific name of ptc ceramic heating element is: positive temperature coefficient thermistor. Its manufacturing process is as follows: adding 4 to 5 kinds of inorganic metal oxides into semiconducting elements and sintering aids, mixing, ball milling, pressing, and sintering at a high temperature of 1300 degrees. It has three major electrical characteristics: resistance-temperature characteristics, time-current characteristics and volt-ampere characteristics. Its application is developed around these three electrical characteristics. It can be used for temperature sensing, control components, current protection components, heating components, etc., and has a wide range of applications. Used for heating is the most basic and most extensive application of ptc. It has a fast heating speed in terms of heating performance, and it can reach its set temperature in a few seconds after power on; it is very safe, because it has a positive temperature coefficient, which determines that it will not produce too high temperature, that is, it has its own control temperature According to the temperature resistance characteristics of ptc, it will automatically adjust the size of the working current, that is, the size of the output power according to the change of the ambient temperature, to achieve the effect of energy saving, and it basically works at a constant temperature; Because ptc is sintered at a high temperature of more than one thousand degrees, this determines that it has the characteristics of long service life. The ptc heating element is under strict process control, and under the conditions of correct selection of parameters and usage methods, the ptc heating element will not experience power attenuation.

Based on the performance and characteristics of the above ptc heating element, it has the requirements of electric heating heating equipment: fast heating, high efficiency and energy saving, safe and reliable, easy to use, comfortable and long life. Combined with the actual application process, how to use it correctly to make full use of the advantages of ptc heating elements to design an excellent electric heating heating equipment? This is the problem to be solved by superconducting convection electric heaters.

Second, the structure of super thermal convection electric heater

        As mentioned above, according to the three unique electrical characteristics of ptc components, it is determined that it is an ideal heating material for electric heating and heating equipment. The key is how to correctly select and design the parameters and use methods of ptc components. The choice of parameters is to correctly set the two parameters of the Curie point temperature and zero resistance value of the ptc element according to the requirements for the use of electric heating and heating equipment. When using heating equipment, people expect the heat to be soft and not make people feel hot. Because the maximum temperature of ptc element heating, that is, the Curie point temperature, can be set by the way of formulating, which can realize people's demand for comfort when heated. The characteristic of ptc heating element is unmatched by other heating materials. Reasonable selection of the zero resistance value of the ptc element can not only maintain the characteristics of rapid heating but also prevent the problem of excessive starting current during operation (this problem is also a defect of the heating material of the ptc element).

     As we all know, there are three ways of heat transmission: conduction, convection, and radiation. Generally, the heating method of ptc heating element is mainly conduction, while the convection heating method is realized by combining with a metal radiator and then using an electric fan to force convection. For example, the ptc heater on the market realizes heat convection in this way. This kind of heat conduction method is not suitable for electric heating heating equipment, because firstly, the strong hot air makes people feel uncomfortable and generates dust and environmental noise. Secondly, this working method cannot guarantee the durability and long life of heating equipment. . But for electric heating heating equipment, it is mainly to heat a relatively sealed space, which determines that the heating method must be based on convection heat transmission. According to this requirement and combined with the characteristics of the ptc heating element, we designed a An electric heating device in the shape of a bobbin, this device has obtained the national patent authorization (patent number: CN204593846U).


patent certificate

The super-conducting electric heater made with this patented technology fully meets the requirements of electric heating equipment in practical applications: fast heating, energy saving and high efficiency, safe and comfortable, easy to use and durable.

Third, the principle of super thermal convection electric heater

        As mentioned above, according to the working principle and performance of the ptc heating element and the functional requirements to be achieved by the electric heating and heating equipment, the proposal of the bobbin structure is proposed. Let me make a digression. With the rapid development of the real estate industry now, people's lives have been greatly improved. Every family lives in high-rise buildings. When they live in high-rise buildings, they will get a warm reminder: When a fire occurs on the floor At times, you must not use the elevator conduction to escape. The reason is that the elevator conduction is straight from bottom to top. When a fire occurs on the floor, a large amount of heat and air flow are constantly spraying upwards to the elevator channel. There is also a common sense of life: when the coal stove was used for heating in the northern winter, when a round iron cylinder was placed on the coal stove, the flames in the coal stove would jump higher than before, which speeded up the heat of the coal stove. Of conduction.


The working mode of the strong natural convection device

  The above two examples are what we often call the "chimney effect" phenomenon. The patented technology "a strong natural convection electric heating device" is a new type of device that makes full use of the principle of "chimney effect" and is applied to heating equipment. In this device, the ptc heating elements can be distributed and combined, and the ptc is combined through a special process. The heating element is embedded in a metal tube of a certain length in a gradient from bottom to top, and the metal tube is connected to a metal cylinder of the same length through N ribs to form a whole. When working, the ptc heating element conducts heat to the metal tube, and the metal tube conducts the heat to the peripheral metal tube through the ribs. This process takes full advantage of the rapid heating of the ptc heating element. The peripheral metal tube also starts in 1 to 2 minutes. Heat, so that the cold air between the outer metal tube and the metal tube expands rapidly under the action of the heat carried by the outer metal tube, ribs and metal tube, and is continuously ejected upward. Since the outer metal cylinder is a closed container, the gas pressure intensity in this container gradually strengthens with the increase of the heating temperature, making the hot air flow at the outlet above the device stronger and stronger, and the relatively cold air flow plays a role in the "siphon principle" It continuously flows into the metal cylinder from below the peripheral metal cylinder to reciprocate and form a relatively strong natural hot air flow. There is a key factor here. The size of the air flow generated by this device is related to the heating temperature of the ptc heating element. The higher the temperature, the faster the air flow, the greater the flow; it is related to the air temperature in the space, because the ptc heating element is basically constant temperature heating, so The lower the ambient air temperature, the greater the temperature difference between the air in the metal cylinder and the surrounding air, and the greater the flow of hot air generated, which is also related to the length of the metal cylinder. The longer the metal cylinder, the greater the flow of hot air generated. As mentioned earlier, the arrangement of ptc heating elements is arranged in a gradient manner (gradually sparse from bottom to top), so the bottom heating speed is faster, so that the hot air flow can be formed quickly, and the hot air flow can be generated in about 3 minutes. These phenomena are extremely beneficial as heating equipment.


Super thermal convection electric heater

       At present, Zhejiang Xintong Electronics Co., Ltd. uses this patented technology to develop a creative and novel heating equipment-super thermal convection electric heater, which has been satisfactorily used in real life and achieved remarkable results, reaching the design time Imagine. The superconducting electric heater can be composed of N "a strong natural convection electric heating device" according to different power requirements. It is an ideal electric heating and heating equipment. As for its performance characteristics, the next part will explain.

Fourth, the performance of super thermal convection electric heater

     Because the heating source of the super thermal convection electric heater adopts ptc heating element, the unique shape design, and the structure of the lightweight aluminum alloy radiator tube create distinctive performance and characteristics:


The structure of superconducting convection heater

*Rapid heating is based on the resistance temperature characteristics of the ptc element, the curve before the Curie temperature point is a negative temperature coefficient, so it has the characteristic that the set temperature can be reached within a few seconds after power on, and the heat emitted is passed through The ribs are conducted to the outer metal tube of the superconducting electric heater, and heat can be felt in 1 to 2 minutes. The hot air flow starts to be generated in 2 to 3 minutes.

* Constant temperature heating Since the ptc element starts to generate heat, it works on the curve of the positive temperature coefficient. That is, when the temperature rises, the resistance increases, causing the current to drop; after the current drops, the temperature drops again, so that the resistance decreases, and the current starts to rise again. Repeatedly, the ptc element always works at a constant point. This determines that the superconducting electric heater basically works in a constant temperature state, so that it will not produce overheating. The lower temperature is used in the design of the ptc Curie point temperature, so that people do not feel dry, which is also the basic condition for the human body to feel comfortable. At the same time, it can simplify the temperature control device of the equipment, reduce the cost, reduce the failure rate, and ensure the long-term use of the equipment.

*Safe and durable ptc heating element, after setting the Curie point temperature, it basically works around this temperature. Since the temperature is set at about 200 degrees, there will be no over-temperature phenomenon and no open flame operation. The state ensures its safety. As mentioned in the previous article (1), the ptc component is made by high temperature sintering. It is a ceramic material, strong and durable, not oxidized, and can be durable if it is not artificially damaged.

*High efficiency and energy saving. Due to the unique structural design of the superconducting convection heater, under the action of the "chimney effect", it produces a strong natural hot air flow (velocity of 0.4 to 0.8 m/s) during operation, and is equipped with light The heat dissipation cylinder is made of high-quality aluminum alloy. The ptc heating element directly heats the heat dissipation cylinder. It has the dual heat conduction function of radiation to both sides and upward convection. Space conduction. This performance is extremely important for heating equipment, because in a relatively closed space, the main means to heat the air is to use hot air to exchange hot and cold air to achieve a heating effect. The larger the hot air flow, the faster the exchange speed, that is, the higher the heating efficiency of the heating equipment, the lower the power required per unit area, which achieves the purpose of saving electric energy.

*Investment saving and easy to use. Due to the efficient heating performance of the superconducting convection electric heater, it can be portable and moved or fixed on the wall, which saves a lot of engineering construction costs for heating in winter and can also be free of maintenance. Troubles and costs. High, medium and low power can be selected, and a convenient device for drying clothes is designed, which brings convenience to life. Distinctive features, can be used out of the box, and can be used flexibly. It is quiet and does not produce dust pollution.


Wall installation of superconducting convection electric heater

*Wide range of application Because superconducting electric heaters have a unique heat conduction method, they have a wide range of applications, which are suitable for use in the northern region and also suitable for use in the southern region. In general, the heating effect is better when used in the northern area than in the southern area. This is because the houses in the northern area are better sealed than those in the southern area, and the air is relatively dry. The sealing performance of houses in the south is relatively poor, the most important being that the air humidity is high, which has a great impact on the heating effect of general heating equipment. The habit of using heaters in southern families is also different. When people leave, they will stop. This situation will also make people feel that the general heaters are not effective. Because the superconducting electric heater has strong convection of the hot air flow, on the one hand, it can quickly heat the air, and on the other hand, the strong hot air flow can fully agitate the damp cold air and accelerate the exchange of hot and cold air to achieve the heating effect. In the north, the heating effect of superconducting electric heaters is more effective and more energy-saving. These use effects have been fully tested in practice.

*Used in many occasions Due to the unique structure and distinctive characteristics of super thermal convection electric heaters, it is suitable for many occasions:

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